Modern crystallography is concerned with the spatial arrangement of the atoms (structure) in condensed matter, with the structural changes, as well as with the physical, chemical, and technical properties of solids, as well as with relations to materials and geosciences. In Germany, crystallography was developed from two roots: within the field of mineralogy, in the 18th century, chairs for mineralogy and crystallography were already provided, which led to a flourishing of the subject in the 19th and the early 20th century. For example, the establishment of the 'Zeitschrift für Mineralogie und Kristallographie' by P. Groth in 1877 is mentioned, that soon developed to the internationally leading organ of the area. Since the diffraction of X-rays by crystals was discovered in 1912, important impulses were added from physics, which are connected, among others, with the names of M. von Laue and P.P. Ewald. By W.H. and W.L. Bragg, crystallography developed to a modern discipline, in which the crystal structure is the centre of interest.